TERMS TO KNOW

ECHO CHAMBER An echo chamber does exactly what the name implies; the same things are reinforced over and over. Often algorithms used by companies like Google and Facebook aim to serve their users content that is tailored to their interests. This is when an echo chamber will develop, and content that the computer thinks you will enjoy is pushed to the top.  Real World Example: (borrowed from Eli Pariser, the author of "The Filter Bubble,") have a group of friends Google a topical issue and look at how varied the search results are. You will find that Google's first page results will be tailored to each user's interests.

ECHO CHAMBER
An echo chamber does exactly what the name implies; the same things are reinforced over and over. Often algorithms used by companies like Google and Facebook aim to serve their users content that is tailored to their interests. This is when an echo chamber will develop, and content that the computer thinks you will enjoy is pushed to the top. 
Real World Example: (borrowed from Eli Pariser, the author of "The Filter Bubble,") have a group of friends Google a topical issue and look at how varied the search results are. You will find that Google's first page results will be tailored to each user's interests.

CLICKBAIT
Clickbait is sensational or provocative content created to attract attention and draw visitors to a website. The end goal of this type of content is to create advertising revenue, or spread misinformation (whether the author is aware of it or not). 
Real World Examples: You'll Never Look at Barbie Dolls the Same Once You See These Paintings or 23 Things Parents Should Never Apologize For

CLICKBAIT BUZZWORDS All of these words are meant to entice you without actually providing any valuable content. If you see these words in a headline, it is probably Clickbait.  Real World Examples: Epic, amazing, wistful, nostalgic, striking, WOW, powerful, unbelievable, stunning, breathtaking, vintage, LOL, captivating, remarkable, omg, surreal, best, intimate, touching, you won’t believe what happens next, NSFW, incredible, win, most magical, fail, eye-opening, cure

CLICKBAIT BUZZWORDS
All of these words are meant to entice you without actually providing any valuable content. If you see these words in a headline, it is probably Clickbait. 
Real World Examples: Epic, amazing, wistful, nostalgic, striking, WOW, powerful, unbelievable, stunning, breathtaking, vintage, LOL, captivating, remarkable, omg, surreal, best, intimate, touching, you won’t believe what happens next, NSFW, incredible, win, most magical, fail, eye-opening, cure

CONFIRMATION BIAS Confirmation bias is our tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of something we believed. If we hear something to the contrary of our preconceptions, we are more likely to dismiss that information rather than take it into account, even if there is overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Real World Example: Watch this video that illustrates confirmation bias. As he says in the clip, "If you think something is true, you should try as hard as you can to disprove it."

CONFIRMATION BIAS
Confirmation bias is our tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of something we believed. If we hear something to the contrary of our preconceptions, we are more likely to dismiss that information rather than take it into account, even if there is overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
Real World Example: Watch this video that illustrates confirmation bias. As he says in the clip, "If you think something is true, you should try as hard as you can to disprove it."

QUALIFYING STATEMENTS Qualifying statements are used in persuasive pieces to soften hard statements, and to make claims seem more trustworthy. These phrases don't add anything to the content, but will often leave room for the author to wiggle out of responsibility for the claims they are making. Here are some examples: Real World Examples: I want to say, I’m just saying, To be perfectly honest, I just want you to know, To tell you the truth, I’m not saying, I hear what you’re saying, Don’t take this the wrong way, Let’s be frank, As far as I know, I’m thinking that, Surely.

QUALIFYING STATEMENTS
Qualifying statements are used in persuasive pieces to soften hard statements, and to make claims seem more trustworthy. These phrases don't add anything to the content, but will often leave room for the author to wiggle out of responsibility for the claims they are making. Here are some examples:
Real World Examples: I want to say, I’m just saying, To be perfectly honest, I just want you to know, To tell you the truth, I’m not saying, I hear what you’re saying, Don’t take this the wrong way, Let’s be frank, As far as I know, I’m thinking that, Surely.

SPONSORED CONTENT This means that the website or organization hosting the article is being payed to talk about a product or event. While this in itself isn't inherently wrong, it can create a blurred line between news, content, and advertisements.  Real World Examples: Undisclosed sponsored content, like when Lord & Taylor Settles FTC Charges It Deceived Consumers Through Paid Article in an Online Fashion Magazine and Paid Instagram Posts by 50 “Fashion Influencers” or having "Brand Publishers" like on this Buzzfeed article. 

SPONSORED CONTENT
This means that the website or organization hosting the article is being payed to talk about a product or event. While this in itself isn't inherently wrong, it can create a blurred line between news, content, and advertisements. 
Real World Examples: Undisclosed sponsored content, like when Lord & Taylor Settles FTC Charges It Deceived Consumers Through Paid Article in an Online Fashion Magazine and Paid Instagram Posts by 50 “Fashion Influencers” or having "Brand Publishers" like on this Buzzfeed article